The total age of the glacier is approximately 400 years. Landsat image of terminus position of Hubbard Glacier on 1 October 2000. Snow that falls in the basin either melts or flows down to the terminus, causing Hubbard to steadily grow. Thank Karen M . On another note, when the authors used the phrase “should be viewed with skepticism “, did they use the “sk” word deliberately? Glaciologists who have studied Alaska's ice for years say the opposite is true. The captain ofour ship, the Celebrity Millenium was great (a wonderful sense of humour). Rapid erosion of soft sediments by tidewater glacier advance: Taku Glacier, Alaska, USA, Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface,,, end of outburst projected from discharge curve. The discontinuity of the calculated erosion rates is due to a discontinuity in dB/dt, because, as described above, B was assumed constant until ice calving started and to then increase linearly afterward. /sarc I’ve known many of them professionally, in part when my Fortune 500 employer consulted with Scientists on Climate Issues, and your claims are wildly off base. If ice thickness was on the order of 100 to 200 m in that area, local thickening rates could have been of the order of 0.35–0.70 m d−1. The last “published” data on glacial mass balances was in 2011 when things were going their way. I suspect the last possible thing alarmists can cite will be long-term land-locked ice (still responding to little ice-age). Hmm. If we assume a conservative value of ∼3 m s−1 for the daily average tidal current through the gap, and use the average of the two values for melt rate from Figure 13, we find that melt rates in the channel could range from a low of 1.3 m d−1 in early spring (3°C) to as much as 4.5 m d−1 in late summer (10°C), compared to average ice velocity of about 5 m d−1 along this section of the terminus. McKinley and Hubbard). Small Bodies, Solar Systems Glacial outburst flood sediments within Disenchantment Bay, Alaska: Implications of recognizing marine jökulhlaup deposits in the stratigraphic record. The 2002 outburst proceeded in two stages: (1) relatively slow overtopping of the subaerial moraine with downward erosion rates of 1–2 m h−1 with little lateral expansion, (2) followed by faster downward erosion of the submarine moraine (up to 7 m h−1) with rapid lateral expansion of the channel by ice calving (∼7 m h−1). We derived a discharge curve as shown in Figure 6 by differencing the water level data during the outburst period, using methods and fjord hypsometry described by Mayo [1989]. Hubbard Glacier is nicknamed the “galloping glacier” because of its fairly rapid (for a glacier) descent toward Disenchantment Bay. [44] Both the 1986 and 2002 outburst floods substantially and rapidly altered the submarine terrain in the Gilbert Point region, stripping massive amounts of ice, sediments (and perhaps bedrock), redepositing them in Disenchantment Bay [Cowen et al., 1996]. And they drive on the wrong side too – well most of them. Anthony is co-author of peer reviewed papers. It seems that the mini glaciers in Glacier National Park get a lot of press because they are retreating, but Hubbard doesn’t get any press, even though it’s the largest tidewater glacier in North America. So, your criteria have now become ‘peer reviewed’ and in a ‘decent journal’. Equation (16) predicts somewhat higher melt rates than equation (15). They do include Taku Glacier. Once moraine material is pushed above water in front of a seasonally advancing terminus, it will effectively isolate the ice front from the ocean and thereby shut down the calving and submarine processes, allowing the glacier to advance unabated. Save the Great British Bakeoff. Within this short time interval ice flowing into EDB doubled in speed from 5–6 m d−1 to preclosure speeds of 11–12 m d−1 and flowed in a more westerly direction. Are those ladies somewhat special? Hubbard Glacier has dammed Russell Fjord twice in historic times, once in 1986 and again in 2002. Additional support was provided by the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska. These surveys serendipitously overlapped with the 2002 damming of Russell Fjord. The Hubbard Glacier ice margin has continued to advance for about a century. It’s a magnificent sight in any case. Global sea ice back to normal. and Petrology, Exploration Not in a decent journal. CRAZY BIG AVALANCHE @ 2:03 !! Mr J Philip Peterson, what do dikes say when they have been reinforced? [56] The discharge records for the 1986 and 2002 outbursts differ significantly and reflect differences in lake height ±26 m versus 15 m) and dam types (ice versus moraine). Photo coverage barely extended into Russell Fjord and did not extend up glacier. Regions westward along the terminus into Disenchantment Bay lacked shoreline control necessary for photogrammetric analysis. This completely portable system was installed on a 20 foot skiff. With nowhere to drain, runoff caused the water level in the fjord to rise rapidly. [45] Our bathymetric surveys show that following the 2002 outburst the channel was scoured to depths of 60 m by the outburst flood and ice advance. Geophysics, Biological And isn’t Antarctica itself a giant glacier? 2. Figure 7c thus captures the major reorganization that ice flow underwent during this 2‐day period in response to the rapidly changing conditions at Gilbert Point. Our analysis was restricted to the regions close to Gilbert Point covering an area of about 3 km2 (Figure 2). OMG! Also Taku Glacier the largest glacier in the Juneau Icefield doesn’t get any press, because it is advancing. Three questions arise from these observations: (1) What conditions prevent the glacier at Gilbert Point from advancing as rapidly as elsewhere? Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. Learn more. [54] Complicating this prediction are ice flow instabilities. The Army Corp of Engineers’ Hubbard Glacier website for has some great photos of the advancing behemoth. See Glaciers growing in Spain (Pyrinees) Antarctica growing colder - Ice expanding 18 Apr 09 - "Ice is expanding in much of Antarctica," says this article. Increased rates occur about 13 hours after dam failure starts. Advance of Hubbard Glacier and 1986 outburst of Russell Fiord, Alaska, U.S.A. Taku Glacier on the move again: Active deformation of proglacial sediments, 20th century thinning of Mendenhall Glacier, Alaska, and its relationship to climate, lake calving, and glacier run‐off, Submarine melting at the terminus of a temperate tidewater glacier, LeConte Glacier, Alaska, Rapid erosion of soft sediments by tidewater glacier advance: Taku Glacier, Alaska, USA, Preliminary hydrography and historic terminal changes of Columbia Glacier, Alaska, Taku and LeConte Glaciers, Alaska: Calving speed control of late Holocene asynchronous advances and retreats, Oceanographic conditions during 1973 in Russell Fiord, Alaska. The manuscript greatly benefited by reviews from N. Iverson, J. Walder, M. Funk, and H. Björnsson. “This is all to be expected as when glaciers melt, they speed up and so this is why its advancing and getting thicker…”. [42] The flow divergence increased flux east of Gilbert Point, which led to ice advance there and ice almost crossed the gap in August (Figures 4 and 7b). Then we can talk. Sorry. However, to our knowledge, Hubbard Glacier is the first historic instance of an advancing tidewater glacier damming a major waterway. Hubbard advanced to within 70 m of Gilbert Point in July and showed signs of a more advanced position within Disenchantment Bay and Russell Fjord than in previous years. In contrast, it has now advanced 2.5 km since 1895 [Trabant et al., 2003a], a period when glaciers in the surrounding region have been losing mass, some of them at increasing rates [Arendt et al., 2002; Larsen et al., 2007]. Outbursts of the magnitude seen in the past from Russell Fjord also constitute a severe hazard to navigation in the bay. The Laser ranging system at Gilbert Point is temporarily off-line until further notice. Source: Figure 3. Temporal and spatial changes in water depth reflect deposition or erosion of proglacial sediments, which in turn can lead to increased or decreased terminus stability. Processes, Information Growing again. Seismic stratigraphic evidence for glacial expanse during glacial maxima in the Yakutat Bay Region, Gulf of Alaska. November 13, 2020 . U.S. Geological Survey (2010, December) Hubberd Glacier, Alaska. Based on the current rate of advance at the gap, Stearns estimated that closure could occur by 2043. Trabant et al. [4] In this paper we describe Hubbard Glacier; discuss the formation of the 2002 dam and the subsequent outburst flood; analyze the changes in ice flow patterns caused by this event; show changes in bathymetry in and around the point of dam formation; present a discharge model for the outburst flood; and finally discuss how channel depth and warm ocean temperatures may be preventing the glacier from readvancing and closing Russell Fjord since 2002. [30] Late summer ocean temperatures in EDB were warm and similar for 2002–2005, and showed a positive gradient with depth, increasing from 6.5°C near the surface to as much as 10.4°C at depths of 50 m (Figure 10). Global Warming stuns very easily. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! On the Russell Fjord side, Trabant et al. The 1986 event was the subject of several articles [Seitz et al., 1986; Mayo, 1988, 1989; Trabant et al., 1991; Krimmel and Trabant, 1992] and received widespread attention in the press. (1896-1977), Chinese Journal of Geophysics (2000-2018), International The moraine has been squeezed up against Gilbert Point, increasing in elevation to 14 m asl. Physics, Solar Some material from contributors may contain additional copyrights of their respective company or organization. This moraine was pushed against Gilbert Point and by late June, closed off Russell Fjord. Hubbard Glacier Calving, on July 4th 2006. I had it drummed into my head first in school and second when my 12 year old daughters memorized a couple of plays. The glaciers they include in their total mass balances are very limited. Alaska’s Hubbard Glacier. If Hubbard were to advance until it reached this state with the current equilibrium line altitude (ELA), the advance would continue down Disenchantment Bay for over 30 km, and would last for over 1000 years at the current advance rate of ∼30 m yr−1. By Climatologist Cliff Harris . Due to damage which occured last summer to the power system, a temporary power solution fitted in September has failed. Careful, don’t poke the troll too much or he’ll fly into an incoherent spittle-flecked rage, stamp his feet -oops, too late. The shoal moraine effectively shut down ice calving and narrowed the channel between Disenchantment Bay and Russell Fjord to 75 m. [20] The glacier advanced another 130 m through June, shoving the moraine against Gilbert Point in a series of imbricate thrusts and closed off the fjord entirely by mid‐June. Photo by Bill Lucey, U.S. Forest Service. The problem with your assertion dear Warren is that the scientists here advise the reader to view their projections with “skepticism”, which is the correction way to view projections. Processes in Geophysics, Atmospheric Billy, Warren, et al, The flood waters rapidly eroded sediments and ice causing the channel to widen to 230 m and deepen to as much as 60 m bsl. Journal of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, Nonlinear Hubbard Glacier, one of the few growing glaciers in Alaska, advances toward Gilbert Point north of Yakutat in summer 2009. (d) Channel depths 2 years after outburst. However, the closure was temporary, as water pressure overpowered the encroaching ice and debris and burst through the natural dam, returning the fjord to normal levels. Will Trump send the Paris Agreement to the US Senate? This advance has now brought the terminus close to Gilbert Point at the entrance to 60‐km‐long Russell Fjord (Figure 2). Hubbard Glacier could permanently dam the entrance to Russell Fiord in as little as 10 years. The current advance of Hubbard Glacier is driven by its very high ratio of accumulation to total area (AAR) of 0.95, and we consider the glacier to be in the advance phase of the so‐called tidewater glacier cycle [Post, 1975; Meier and Post, 1987; Post and Motyka, 1995; Trabant et al., 2003a]. – Jonathon Moseley, American Thinker, “…flashy (apparently widely distributed)”– Michael E. Mann, Material on this website is copyright © 2006-2019, by Anthony Watts, and may not be stored or archived separately, rebroadcast, or republished without written permission. Hubbard Glacier, located in southeast Alaska, has an intriguing history; it retreated during the Little Ice Age when neighboring glaciers advanced and is currently advancing while neighboring glaciers recede [Barclay et al., 2001; Trabant et al., 2003; McNabb and Hock, 2014]. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. It’s not stopped,it’s stunned. Thus we propose that future closures will depend in part on continued sedimentation into the channel at Gilbert Point. It’s also been very active in the past, having had two major surges in the past 30 years. Solid circles are from, Schematic geometry of the outburst dam with (a) the moraine above sea level and (b) the moraine below sea level. Ice was also threatening to close the ∼10 m gap behind the moraine dam. The water was crystal clear like glass with many small pieces of ice all around. Oh-oh, she forgot to mention the magic words “climate change”, No funding for you! Bathymetric surveys of Gilbert Point channel. What a lie! Here. Der Hubbard-Gletscher ist ein Gletscher in der Eliaskette im US-Bundesstaat Alaska und dem Yukon-Territorium Kanadas.. [8] This paper focuses on the region near Gilbert Point where two closures and outbursts have already occurred and where continued glacier advance threatens further closures of 60‐km‐long Russell Fjord (Figure 2). The previous system was dependent on a high-powered radio link to Haenke Island, which required significant power to operate. This baby is a whopper. Thank Karen M . 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