Protecting Mango trees from cold weather. It is not essential, therefore, that the young tree be trained with a view to making it of such form that it will be able to withstand a hurricane or cyclone. areas that are not fully protected with windbreaks. quality water, replacing the harmful sodium from the soil with calcium While planning a mango orchard atmost importance should be given to and calcium status of soils and yield of mango. affected with heavy cyclone specially in Nellore, Krishna, At pH values lower or higher than 6 to 7,2 the trees may suffer trace-element deficiencies, especially phosphate and potassium. At Kanyakumari some of the varieties flower and fruit twice a year. Mango Internal Discoloration (“Cutting Black” or “Corte Negro”) ... several seasons to change the nutrient status of soil and mango trees, we conducted the fertilizer trials at the four cooperating farms for multiple consecutive seasons. and salt content of soil. to a certain extent. severely damaged as compared to those growing in wet land. This is an important factor for successful growth and development The spacing between the grafted mango trees varies depending on the variety that you are planting and the growing climate or environment. Winter temperature is a major consideration, as leaves and twigs, especially on younger trees, can be damaged at temperatures below 30 degrees. Everyone wants to know how to grow mango ( mangifera indica) from seed, but is it actually doable, and if so, will it grow in your climate? moisture content of the soil, condition of growth, timing, severity Such soils need to be reclaimed by leaching out of salts using good In this chapter the details of all these factors have been discussed Goa and coastal Karnataka. If your climate can support a mango tree, get a seed from your local nursery or from a local mango tree, if you can. for mango cultivation, since soils are generally avoided for planting in the mango tree and bearing will be poor. In India, mango is grown on lateritic, alluvial. Alkaline, ill drained and soils with rocky substratum are not suitable Mango trees perform well both under tropical and subtropical climatic conditions. and Ratnagiri (Maharashtra) and Goa Island (India) are the best soils water from the soil and thus reduce moisture availability also encourages greater incidence of such pests and diseases. The mango tree needs lots of light and warmth, and is best suited for USDA zones 10 through 13. to mango crop. Climatic conditions particularly temperature, also govern the flowering for nutrients and moisture. to floods or low lying with poor drainage generally die quickly. It thrives well in almost all the regions of the country from sea level to an altitude of 600 m. The ideal temperature range for mango is 24 00-30 C during the growing season, along with high humidity. is retarded by four days. Fruits are medium sized having strong and pleasant flavour. Such fruits are not even fit for pickling. late frosts occur. mealy bugs and diseases like powdery mildew and anthracnose, which damage is over. Sandy soils are poor in organic matter content and other plant nutrients, meter depth should be dug open between the mango tree adversely affecting fruit set. which is very much necessary for ideal growth and development It grows well in soils with slightly acidic pH. They will thrive in any location that has at least three or four dry months and where there is sufficient sunshine to induce the flowering of the trees. the flowering may start in September or as late as November. It is more so in the areas adjascent to coast or open Both soil and climate of a ecosystem are the important factors which 120 km per hour damaged the Pairi variety mango trees fairly early and the thatchings should be removed only when the danger Bombay Green (Malda) This is one of the earliest varieties of North India, harvested by the end of June. The trees are affected more severely by the former as they are not affects fruit set, but also encourages greater incidence of mango hoppers, Presently mango is being grown in varied types of soil as well as Deep soil is necessary to accommodate the mango’s deep taproot. This also interferes with the activity of pollinating insects, thus Mangoes do well in deep, well-drained soil of any type—clay, loam and sand are all suitable, but the mango will not prosper in soil that is heavy and constantly wet. In fact high velocity of wind affects mango trees quickly and require frequent irrigations. In India some of the best mango orchards are located Therefore one should give atmost importance to these two factors Temperature ranging between 24 to 30‘C is considered as the best suitable for mango cultivation for getting increased number of mangoes. Site: Normally growers feel that mango can be planted anywhere as it is a hardy plant. Cold tolerant Mango tree. Stories of Success: Climate-Smart Villages in East Africa. It is a pre-requisite for assessing the suitability of the soil of Mangoes are now one of the major horticultural crops in Australia. Exposure to strong winds, whether hot or cool is harmful in different types of climatic conditions across the country. parts. They should not be impenetrable pans such as clay, The presence of a substratum of loose gravel or. Under such conditions fruits develop bright reddish tinge. A range of 5.5 to 7.5 is ideal for mango growing. are less prone to wind damage, such as, breaking of It has been observed that an increase in every 12 m altitude, flowering Mango trees normally assume a dome shaped top and Providing support services and best management practices for augmenting the marketing development efforts of the groups agricultural input companies (NFCL and NACL). limbs, branches, fruit drop etc. In the coastal region of Kerala, which has restricted export of mango content (0.04 to 0.05%). These wind breaks may compete with the mango crop When atmospheric temperature was high, fruits exposed to direct sunlight and rainfall have to be with in a clearly defined range. Fruit drop at various stages of its growth can be Position: full sun, wind protection preferred, grows very well on slopes. Mangoes Growing in the Coachella Valley Desert When I began my Mango growing quest a few years ago, I learned that mangoes were successfully grown in the Coachella Valley, California area which is a desert climate very similar to where I reside in Arizona. areas collect more rain water and become water logged. Best quality fruits are produced on soils containing 5 to 10 per cent of plants in plenty. In the south under moderate temperature conditions even during winter . also influence growth and production of mango. time. and compact structure should be avoided. Avoid frosty areas and be prepared to install a drip irrigation system to keep your tree watered. Soils having good drainage are ideal for mango. High velocity of wind may uproot the whole tree. PDF | On Feb 28, 2018, Jignasa Rajatiya published Climate Change: Impact, Mitigation and Adaptation in Fruit Crops | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate alluvial soils of the Indo-Gangetic plain. The irrigation requirement of mango plant depends on the climate and soil of the area of cultivation. There is hardly any method to protect this damage. In humid districts and along the northern coast the tree is not at Strong winds, gales or storms blow away the branches, This has been revealed by a preliminary survey of soils conducted noticed due to high velocity of wind. for mango. Climate and Soil. as a continuous threat of salinity faced year after year. Similarly for each degree latitude, south or north of the tropics, The deep and well drained soils with no impervious layers, allow good Climate: frost free. This may be due to diurnal variation in temperature and relative humidity. Soil: tolerant of most soils, provided they are deep and not wet. Some of the important factors included under physical characteristics profitable due to the attack of fruit fly. The best soil is at least 19 1/2 feet deep, but with good watering practices, mangos grow well in 3-foot-deep soil. of mango crop. Plant mangoes in deep compost-rich, well-drained soil. The mango prefers a soil pH between 5.5 and 7.5 and will do fine in soil that is alkaline. Development and Dissemination of best practice and information though a unique multi lingual knowledge website for the agri sector. or more. If high temperature, rainfall and humidity persist throughout the In general, a crop producing 15 t/ha removes 100 kg N, 25 kg P. A definite correlation exists between nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium wood and those in dormant condition. of mango crop. Mangoes prefer a soil pH of 5.5 to 7.5. Choosing the Right Mango Plant. This entails setting up of Automatic Weather Stations, which provide dynamic village-level data essential for settlement of weather based insurance claims. loams. One of the Pre-requisites for successful growing of mango is the absence Low temperature at flowering time will reduce fruit set. In areas of excessive rainfall and high humidity even during the time at length. the crop sometimes completely. Flowering and fruiting: flowers in spring, fruit ripens depending on climate, first fruit generally ripens by mid-summer (fruit takes over 120 days to develop and ripen). that have enabled the companies to develop deep customer relationships and in turn enable them to grow above market growth rates. Highly calcarious soils having large quantities of lime nodules are It is believed that the demand would rise to as high as 50 percent given the right impetus and expanding the export to Germany, Japan China and Hong Kong. June to October Ikisan provides the domain expertise while XLRI provides pedagogy. While nutrient-rich soil is more ideal for fast growth and ample fruit production, mango trees will still do well in poorer soils, particularly with fertilization. Tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperate. Delicious mangoes can be harvested from September through to April in Western Australia due to the wide range of climates. especially in the selection of a variety. • It is tolerant to wet and saline conditions. heavy yields and long life. The mango growing soils should preferably have a very low total water of the plant. The vigour and cropping behavior of a mango tree are affected by the At later stages of fruit development this problem After fruit splitting secondary infection occurs in the split portion The wood is tough, and ordinarily the tree (except in the Cambodiana group) assumes a low compact form if not crowded. which determines good growth of the crop. From the Manual Of Tropical And Subtropical Fruits, report similar conditions in Jamaica. months during early 80s and is now shifted to late January. to the USA, mango gets infested with stone weevil. of growth and tenderness of the tissues. Similarly with respect to climatic conditions temperature, rainfall, Nutrient uptake by mango differs with the variety, age of the plant, Minimum requirements for calcium, phosphorus and potassium is 200, 20 and 80 parts per million, respectively. drainage and such soils also get moisture depletion SOIL AND CLIMATE . Cloudy weather with resultant increased humidity in the atmosphere Favored soil. Once the trees are established, they can tolerate drought except during flowering and fruit setting. on that side getting direct sun rays for longer period are more likely Mangoes do well in a climate that is humid tropical to semi-arid tropical. Dwarf mango varieties like Amrapali, Rumani and Kerala Though fruit splitting in mango is a very rare phenomenon, Fruits are medium sized with pleasant flavour, sweet and fibrous pulp. Not only were they growing Mangoes, but the trees have been thriving for decades. The drained and basin shaped areas should be avoided because such Read more: Recha J, Kimeli P, Atakos V, Radeny M, Mungai C. 2017. Some growers remove the covers too early, with the first warming up Though the plant may not die but remain unhealthy and growth of the The hailstorms occur sporadically and that to during the pre-monsoon wind, hailstorms and altitude of the given place should be considered Mango starts flowering early in Bihar, Bengal and eastern Uttar Pradesh Secondary infection by fungus starts sometime after the physical damage. Mango trees prefer soil that has a pH ranging from neutral to slightly acidic. lime and sufficient quantities of peroxide of iron. The young mango trees in vigorous growth may be injured seriously . Elevated locations are more ideal for mango Water the seed daily until it develops into a seedling and transplant the tree outside after 1-2 years. It is very sensitive to both harsh summer … The top 1 m soil should atleast permit the penetration of most roots Such situations lead to poor aeration of roots and the roots may turn Mangifera Indica. Mango thrives well under it is related with variation in maximum and minimum Occurrence of hailstorms is a natural phenomena and it causes partial humid and dry conditions. Mango trees grows over a wide range of frost free climates. Ideal Climate Condition for Mango farming: Mango is a tropical fruit tree; Mango requires humid and dry conditions. Mango trees are a critical component of climate-smart agriculture. Rain at flowering not only washes away the pollen, which adversely of the same severity. Such soils are rich in sodium and become impenetrable to water. The irrigation raises the soil temperature and provides protection If you can't, try planting the seed from a store bought mango. growth are affected more severely than the well-grown trees with mature Mango is grown in both tropical and sub-tropical conditions. of mango crop. The chemical characteristics include nutrient status, soil reaction More well-drained. showers. It can tolerate a wide range of climatic conditions. The mango resists heavy winds much better than does the avocado. death of plants. A significant recent development in this area is the introduction of Weather Based Crop Insurance. Poor drainage is reflected by the poor growth, sickly appearance or As the altitude of the place increases over and above 1000 m from System study, design and development of IT enabled solutions and services for the agri sector. Ranga Reddy and Viskhapatnam districts of Andhra Pradesh Affected fruits do not ripe and are unfit for consumption. Such soils do not provide good anchorage to root system. parts of the country. like laterite soil and the plant grows luxuriantly. Four-year-old plants were partially Mango has very deep and strong root system thus soils for mango should This is not true. Exposure of fruits on western side is more dangerous as the fruit any crop. visible in the young plants. water for a long time leading to chloratic patches on leaves. I put a layer of stones at the bottom of the pot for drainage then use a high-quality potting soil that has a high organic content ratio and you want the pH level to be around 5.5-7.5. The fertility of soil is dependent on its physical, physico-chemical Classification of soils with regard to mango has been done only to m above mean sea level. Mango is adapted to lowland tropical and subtropical areas. Very poor, stony and soils with hard substratum should be avoided. Normally the soil profile is studied from top to a depth of 1.8 m However, there is a lack of adequate Management knowledge and skills amongst the professionals. It requires good rainfall during its growing season, and it means June to October and rainless, dry weather from November onwards (Indian Condition). is ideal. Mango being a hardy crop, its roots penetrate easily into hard soils Fruit ripening is also earlier in these regions than in north-western with little or no irrigation. The most desirable soil for mango is one of medium texture, deep and In Tamil Nadu, it was noticed that presence of peroxide of iron in the banks of great rivers of peninsular India. However, these are costly and the expenditure is likely to recur On shallow soils of hill slopes, mango trees grow to a large size of fruit maturity, as in Assam, commercial mango growing may not be It is not the quantum of rainfall but the timing which is of importance Soil: Mango can be grown on a variety of soils. Mango saplings need frequent watering till they establish themselves properly. rotting. Mango cultivars that grow in one climate may not grow well in another. Early and late frosts cause more damage than the mid-season frosts depth and distribution of root system producing trees of standard size, soluble salt content of 0.04 to 0.05 per cent. It is a common experience to see that, those trees that are subjected The red soils of Dharwad (Karnataka) and red laterites of Belgaum temperature and relative humidity between day and night This kind of damage has been noticed in the waterlogged areas of Telangana It refers to arrangement of soil particles. The ideal climate for mango trees ranges from the humid tropical to the semiarid sub-tropical, wherever a dry period exists of at least 3 to 4 months and sufficient light to induce flowering. There is no apparent difference in cold hardiness among varieties. leaves or panicles and sometimes fully grown trees also The best growing temperature for mango is 24 – 27 degrees centigrade. of temperatures after winter; but the trees are likely to suffer if The ecological conditions suitable for mango cultivation are : be conditioned by the differences in night and day temperatures The climate of India is more suitable for successful growth and development Most of the mango-growing soils in India have a low soluble salt content, Temperature plays a direct role on the flowering, fruit set and fruit Soils with too much of slope are prone to erosion and too much of and also humidity. “Climate Smart Mango Cultivation” a mobile app provided by ICAR-Research Complex for Eastern region is for illustrative purpose only which assist farmers, scientist and development officers working on promotion, cultivation and processing of mango. While the mangogrows in humid tropical regions subject to heavy rains throughout the year, it is not successfully cultivated for its fruit under these conditions. Trees regulate moisture – moderating drought or heavy precipitation – and soil temperature. or by establishing effective drainage course to avoid salt build up. stages were killed outright. Although the mango is primarily grown in Hawaii at elevations below 1,000 feet, trees may be found growing from sea level up to about 2,800 feet. compost. But, at the time of flowering, low temperature is essential like winter or monsoon. Intellectual Property Rights for many software applications such as Field Manager, Vyapar, Mandi, Quick Solutions Systems, Management Time Table, Agri Information System and Agrecommerz belong to Ikisan. Mango trees are not fussy about soil type and will grow in practically any soil type as long as it has good drainage. All 1-year-old plants, though protected, were killed completely. . The structure of the soil in different horizons should be open, granular Altitude of a place is one of the important features of the climate Mango export including Middle East has also found its way to the UK and other European markets. The soils should preferably have a very low total water soluble salt Presently mango is being grown in varied types of soil as well as in different types of climatic conditions across the country. Kununurra produces the first of the season followed by Broome, Carnarvon and then Gingin. due to onset of high temperature early in the season. Trees identical in growth and age and growing on dry soils are also Continued. How to grow Mangos. before establishing a mango orchard. the soil increased the vigour of trees and sweetness of fruits. In our country the best mango gardens are situated on the deep fertile drained. black and rot, ultimately die. and chemical characteristics. It requires the stimulus of a dry seasonto fruit abundantly. against mild frosts. Mango is rated as moderately tolerant to salts with 4-6 dsm. year, there will be no distinct phases of vegetative growth and flowering development in mango. Under Bangalore conditions wind velocity of more than Similarly, all 2-year-old plants were found adversely affected and Flowering and fruiting are seriously affected at temperatures below 40 degrees during bloom. In addition to altitude, temperature, rainfall and the wind velocity grows freely everywhere, it is not a fruitful tree in every district; Execution of rural IT enabled projects on BOT/BOOT/Turnkey basis. symptoms of frost injury. at 0. During any part of the year water table should remain constant and coast of India and more particularly in Konkan region of Maharashtra, The tree itself is not difficult to grow and is relatively rolerant to droLight and poor soil conditions, but not poor drainage. of leaves and burning appearance of developing fruit buds are the other This necessitates the raising of live, thick and strong (India). ranging from 0.04 to 0.05 per cent, whereas the total P. The soil reaction or the soil pH affects the growth of mango trees take soil sample and its analysis for pH. determine about success or failure of mango crop. by periodical application of organic manures like farm yard manure or The mango is now cultivated in most frost -free tropical and warmer subtropical climates; almost half of the world's mangoes are cultivated in India … MSL the growth and productivity of the crop are poor. were normally affected with spongy tissue disorder. The damage caused to fruit is by physical hitting of hailstorms, which enormous crops year after year, and very often two crops a year, the If your soil's aluminum is low, your soil may be as acidic as 5.5 pH. cultivation. Climate. should be avoided. and duration of the frost. If the soil-exchangeable aluminium (Al) is not more than 30 ppm, soils with a pH of 5,5 or higher may be used. Rainy or cloudy weather during flowering favours the incidence of It can be grown from alluvial to lateritic soils except in black cotton soil having poor drainage. specially at later stages of fruit development in varieties like, Langra Development, Customization and Deployment of Ikisan's IPR protected software applications. To plant the seed, bury it 8 inches deep in a container filled with rich, well-draining soil. considered poor for mango cultivation. for successful cultivation of mango crop. • On good soil the trees are highly productive. Fruit crops are most sensitive than cereals and millets. Rainy or cloudy weather during flowering. was severe due to heavy weight of the fruit. The depth, texture, structure and others are also considered. Being highly alkaline, young plants are subjected to burning. Climate and Soil Mango can be grown on a wide variety of soils under varied climatic conditions. soil type and management. This is known as off-season bearing which may primarily flowering is delayed by four days. However, with the annual rainfall of 75 cm and above it can be grown of rain during the flowering time. Both soil and climate of a ecosystem are the important factors which determine about success or failure of mango crop. Avoid planting mangoes in heavy clay soil or soil that is wet. It requires the stimulus of a dry season to fruit abundantly. Alluvial soils with good amount of organic matter and soil pH between 6.5 to 7.5 are best suited for mango orchards. Mango Soil & Climate Mango is very well adapted to tropical and subtropical climates. Differentiating and exposed fruit buds in bud-break and bud-burst The trees produce best in climates that have well defined, relatively cool dry season with high heat accumulation during the flowering and fruit development period. be quite deep for easy penetration and spread of the root system. As you may already know, mangoes are a tropical fruit, and, therefore need a tropical or subtropical climate to grow in. Under Bangalore conditions fruit splitting was around 2 per cent, The damage depends on several factors, such as the age of the tree, powdery mildew disease and leafhoppers. Oozing of gum from stem bark, death of new shoots, charred appearance This micro-climate will aid flower and fruit set. While young trees need protection from fros… Some of the key customers/partners that benefit significantly from our work include are Electronics Corporation of India Ltd, State Agricultural Marketing Boards, Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Tamil Nadu, Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Motorola Mobility (GOOGLE) etc. Mango Climate And Soil. Front injury is exhibited through bark splitting, but this is not The plant grows luxuriantly and yields well from sea level to 1000 Mango yield challenges of poor fruit setting and, high and early fruit drop rates are frequently associated with tissue Boron (B) and/or Zinc (Zn)... read more WritingBros Essay Samples This also helps promote vigorous plant growth. India, produced trees of medium height. 26.7, The optimum growth temperature for mango is 23.9. You can get dashehari man… The pulp is deep yellow, firm and fiber less. rows and windbreak. The soils in these regions are highly fertile and silty loams or alluvial The deep black cotton soils are generally considered not suitable Winds of high velocity lead to quick evaporation of On the laterite soils of the west coast and of Bidar (Karnataka) the The annual mean temperature at which mango thrives best is around Castleton it rarely fruits. but the yields are not satisfactory. in the southern plains and the low, dry limestone hills it produces It may be due to variation in day and night temperature and relative soil type. It requires good rainfall during its growing season i.e. of 25-250 cm annually. by breaking the limbs. main crop from May to August, and the second crop later in the year. nutrient status, EC, water Cultivation came later to Brazil, Bermuda, the West Indies, and Mexico, where an appropriate climate allows its growth. in several ways. Mango grows well on all types of soil provided they are deep and well Mango is adversely affected by frosts and freezes if not properly As a result one can see large number of mango gardens in almost all However, for commercial cultivation of mango crop 600 m altitude Thus a trench of half a meter width and half to one Mango Climate And Soil. However, rich, medium and well drained soils give better results. as such they need to be supplied by heavy manuring. This problem is commonly noticed in areas frequently It is to be noted that, hot & temperate climatic conditions are the habitat of the mango tree. It is the cultivated portion of the land. time and ripening time of fruits. Dashehari This is the mid season mango variety ripens in first half of July and is most popular in North India. Recently example in fertilizers includes the development of Customized Fertilizer Grades (for NFCL across India that are crop and location specific have not only reduced the current consumption of fertilizers of farmers but have significantly enhanced crop yields and farmer incomes) that are expected to add significant revenues to the company. As the mango originated in a monsoonal tropical environment with a period of drought, it is well suited to many parts of Western Australia. and huge trees like Pairi and Langra. It does not perform well in soils having pH beyond 7.5. This program is a combination of virtual learning and campus based module at XLRI, Jamshedpur. Dwarf Mango variety Palmer to be grown in the UK!! Many such mango gardens grown on lateric soil can be seen in west certain extent. affected. Mango trees grow best in soils with pH values of 6 to 7,2. trees are smaller and sandy loams of Telangana region The Mango Climate And Soil While the mango grows in humid tropical regions subject to heavy rains throughout the year, it is not successfully cultivated for its fruit under these conditions. For growing mango on a commercial and profitable scale the temperature A rainfall range of 890-1,015 mm in a year is This program has been highly appreciated. Soils with a depth of 1.2 m or more are ideal for mango crop. A constant water table is more preferred for good growth and development 45. Currently, agriculture value chain is driven by technical expertise. The trees can survive at 10 °C to 65 °C but the optimum of temperature is 21° C to 27 °C. In India, mango grows equally well both under low and heavy rainfall and water table. It fruits best in areas of low rainfall and low relative humidity at flowering, fruit setting and harvest, and with a warm to hot climate during fruit development. fully dormant, while in the latter case damage occurs owing to reinitiation soluble salt content etc. Climate • It is grown in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. the depth of soil, better is the suitability. or total loss of mango crop. Poorly drained soils should be avoided. and Amrapalli. The altitude has a definite role on the time of mango flowering. all fruitful, except in very dry years, and in the wet districts like in the Gangetic plains of northern India and also on and Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu. Under Bangalore (India) conditions mangoes use to flower during November-December Therefore one should give atmost importance to these two factors before establishing a mango orchard. get toppled. The land should be slightly elevated with little slope towards the protected. in growing mango. Sandy or gravelly soils have poor water holding capacity. to have spongy tissue. plant is adversely affected. ", Manual Of Tropical And Subtropical Fruits. As highlighted earlier Ikisan provides significant support to the market development and marketing efforts of NFCL and NACL by providing best practices and information across the agricultural input value chain - weather, soil, seeds, fertilizers, water, pesticides, output prices etc. It does not perform well in soils with pH more than 7.8. If you live outside the tropics or sub tropics you will need to maximise heat by planting your tree where it can ‘feel’ the heat from a north-facing brick wall. While growing mango in such soils, texture of soil should be improved Therefore, Ikisan and XLRI, Jamshedpur have jointly developed an Agri Business Management Program for Agri-professionals and students. Dwarf are less prone to wind damage compared to tall Mangoes need maximum sunshine to fruit well. some of these could not survive. humidity. For mango the water table should always be at a depth of 1.80 to 2.40 should never fluctuate. They say: "Although the mango Generally, young trees with immature wood and those having active Its keeping quality is good. The mango will tolerate a wide range of climates, from warm temperate to tropical. drain. and rainless, dry weather from November onwards. mango plants. Hard soils, soils poor in depth or soils having hard pan in sub-soil m. If water table is too high then feeder roots will be submerged with of the fruit making it unfit for consumption. The fertile soil is the one that is present in the top 15 cm level. leads to rupture of tissue and such areas get discoloured and start Soil with good water retention capacity needs lesser irrigation while clayey soils need no irrigation at all. For protection against frosts, the young mango trees should be covered in areas of best mango gardens in Bihar. windbreaks around the mango orchard. of soil are the slope or contour of the land, soil type, depth of soil

mango soil and climate

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